Human beings, although generally lacking in strong instinctive behavior, do have certain innate tendencies that are not driven by pure reason.
Genetics appear to have a heavy influence on an individual's attitude regarding these issues:
- Life: voluntary euthanasia, abortion on demand, birth control, and organized religion.
- Equality: open-door immigration, distinct gender roles, racial discrimination, and getting along with others
Genetics appear to have little or no influence regarding these issues:
- Intellect: books, chess, education, and capitalism
- Punishment: death penalty for murder, and castration for sex crimes
There is some evidence that highly heritable attitudes are psychologically "stronger" than less-heritable ones.
Sources: #1 (more traits were studied than are listed above; the above list is derived from the summary at Overcoming Bias)
- There are many beliefs about human nature which influence people's views on morality.
- The authoritarian mindset, for many years the subject of casual discussion but suspected by many to be an oversimplification, now has powerful scientific evidence supporting it.
- Humans seem wired for religion in many ways.
- There is some anecdotal evidence that indignation may be addictive.
- Parasitic organisms can influence animal behavior, including that of humans. Obvious examples include rabies, but it is possible that some peculiar human behaviors are due to less obvious and non-deadly parasitic invasions.
- Humans have committed many acts which other humans consider to be atrocities
- List of cognitive biases
- Love bombing is a deliberate, focused show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual, with the effect that the target individual feels almost overwhelmingly welcomed by the group and is likely to actively seek additional contact. Critics have alleged that this technique is abused by cult religions such as the Church of Scientology.
- The Fourth 'R', or Why Johnny Can't Reason by Dr. Herman T. Epstein: amazingly, studies show that over half of adult humans are "stuck" at a non-abstract level of reasoning. This information needs to be taken into account when planning the future of civilization, as it indicates that most people are not capable of the level of reasoning necessary to make sound decisions on major issues without depending on the opinions of others.
- 2007-04-16 Humans hot, sweaty, natural-born runners: humanity's evolutionary heritage
- 2007-03-22 [reg req]Brain Injury Said to Affect Moral Choices: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex appears to be responsible for the human reluctance to hurt one person in order to save the lives of others, as well as human compassion in general
- 2007-01-22 Why Do Good? Brain Study Offers Clues: People may not perform selfless acts just for an emotional reward, a new brain study suggests. Instead, they may do good because they're acutely tuned into the needs and actions of others. New research at Duke University shows that a piece of the brain linked to perceiving others' intentions shows more activity in people who display unselfish behavior, and less in those who act more selfishly.
It has been suggested that studies such as the Stanford prison experiment [W] and The Third Wave [W] (not to mention the events in Nazi Germany which were the inspiration for the latter) strongly argue in favor of the evilness of human nature. Note for later: also the Milgram experiment [W], which is put nicely in context in one of the chapters of The Authoritarians
One of the primary functions of the human brain is pattern detection. It is so good at detecting patterns, in fact, that in the absence of any real pattern, it will often conjecture that there is a pattern and cling stubbornly to the idea that the pattern is real. This is probably one of the ways in which superstitions begin, and why they persist tenaciously when higher reasoning tells us that a correlation cannot possibly exist.
- 2007-05-19 Do androids dream of electric rabbit feet?
We also have a hard-wired tendency to find ways to ignore information which does not fit our existing biases:
- Emory University fMRI study on political bias:
- 2006-01-24 Democrats and Republicans Both Adept at Ignoring Facts, Study Finds
- 2006-01-30 Study Ties Political Leanings to Hidden Biases (also discusses results from another study done in Palm Springs, CA)
- 2006-01-31 Emory Study Lights Up The Political Brain alt
- 2007-04-07 Confirmation Bias (Repost from AMNAP 1.0)
This is among the main reasons why the scientific method is designed to carefully filter out observer bias, so that we can discover true things about the universe regardless of whether they meet our preconceived notions or make sense to us on a "gut" level.
- 2007-01-20 Outside the Laboratory (addresses the issue of scientists who profess superstitious or religious belief, and how the scientific method is not just another arbitrary ritual like utensil-arrangement at a fancy party)
- Which practices are things we are "taught by society" and which emerge naturally?
- What are the similarities and differences between humans and our nearest genetic relatives (primates)? Much discussion of morality rests upon assumptions about which attributes are key to being human and which are not.
- Many moralistic arguments rest on the premise that non-human animals do or do not do certain things; it is important to establish which of these premises are true, even if many of the arguments are no better than appeal to nature or its opposite (which might be called the animalistic fallacy (is there a better name for this?)) which argues that a particular practice is something only animals do and is therefore uncivilized and bad
- 2007-04-19 'Freakonomics' writer talks monkey business: capuchin monkeys are given a monetary system and independently discover sexual prostitution
Game theory can often tell us a lot about why people behave in seemingly counter-intuitive ways that may actually be rational:
- 2006-11-22 Beware Heritable Beliefs has a summary and some quick analysis, with comments
- The study apparently did not look at the role played by variations in the prenatal environment, which is known to have dramatic effects on sexuality; however, the differentials between the "identical" and "fraternal" twins should take care of this factor also. I think.
- Has anyone worked out what the columns mean in Table 1 (page 5)?