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A soldier argument is any argument that is used as a means of compelling or influencing others to agree with a particular preconceived position, rather than being a means of analyzing evidence and thereby arriving at a better understanding of the truth -- or, as Paul Krugman put it, "the way a drunkard uses a lamppost: for support, not for illumination."
Such arguments are made only when it suits a predetermined agenda, and ignored when it conflicts with that agenda. It a form of hypocrisy, i.e. advancing a given principle in cases where it supports one's beliefs but ignoring or denying it in cases where it contradicts those beliefs.
The worldview which supports this kind of argumentation is more or less synonymous with identity politics, where one's tribal affiliation -- rather than reasoning from facts toward the achievement of a desired goal -- determines one's political position. It is one manifestation of ideological protectionism.
Soldier arguments are often used to create and maintain epistemic closure, since opposing arguments of any kind are viewed as an "enemy" from which the tribe must be protected rather than legitimate criticism which must be accepted if it cannot be refuted.
alias: arguments as soldiers