"Backup government" refers to the idea of a secondary government operating in parallel with the "main" or "official" government. This secondary government would not necessarily be recognized by the official government, nor would it need to be; it would be designed with the intention of accomplishing change through means permitted by the basic documents of the official government (e.g. in the US, the US Constitution). The backup government's goal would be to enforce the spirit of those documents and/or the original spirit in which the official government was authorized by the people. (If the government was never authorized by the people, then this idea may or may not be useful.)
This idea was conceived as a way of addressing the governmental issues currently plaguing the United States, so it may be written in a way that is too US-specific to be used for backup governments in other countries. Anyone is welcome to attempt to adapt the US-specific ideas to other countries or governmental organizations (e.g. cities, states/counties/provinces).
Discussion and planning of backup government for specific countries: