Difference between revisions of "Human nature"

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(→‎Arguments: notes: animal behavior)
(heritable attitudes)
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==Overview==
 
==Overview==
Human beings, although generally lacking in strong instinctive behavior, do have certain innate tendencies that are not driven by pure reason.
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Human beings, although generally [[human instincts|lacking in strong instinctive behavior]], do have certain innate tendencies that are not driven by pure reason.
 +
==Genetics==
 +
Genetics appear to have a heavy influence on these traits:
 +
* '''Life''': voluntary [[euthanasia]], [[abortion]] on demand, [[birth control]], and organized [[religion]].
 +
* '''Equality''': open-door immigration, distinct gender roles, racial discrimination, and getting along with others
  
 +
Genetics appear to have little or no influence on these traits:
 +
* '''Intellect''': books, chess, education, and [[capitalism]]
 +
* '''Punishment''': [[death penalty]] for murder,  and castration for sex crimes
 +
 +
There is some evidence that highly heritable attitudes are psychologically "stronger" than less-heritable ones.
 +
 +
Sources: [[#1]] (more traits were studied than are listed above; the above list is derived from the summary at Overcoming Bias)
 
==Related Pages==
 
==Related Pages==
 
* There are many [[beliefs about human nature]] which influence people's views on [[morality]].
 
* There are many [[beliefs about human nature]] which influence people's views on [[morality]].
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==Related Concepts==
 
==Related Concepts==
 
* [[wikipedia:Love bombing|Love bombing]] is a deliberate, focused show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual, with the effect that the target individual feels almost overwhelmingly welcomed by the group and is likely to actively seek additional contact. Critics have alleged that this technique is abused by cult [[religion]]s such as the Church of [[Scientology]].
 
* [[wikipedia:Love bombing|Love bombing]] is a deliberate, focused show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual, with the effect that the target individual feels almost overwhelmingly welcomed by the group and is likely to actively seek additional contact. Critics have alleged that this technique is abused by cult [[religion]]s such as the Church of [[Scientology]].
 
 
==Links==
 
==Links==
 
* [http://www.brainstages.net/4thr.html The Fourth 'R', or Why Johnny Can't Reason] by Dr. Herman T. Epstein: amazingly, studies show that over half of adult humans are "stuck" at a non-abstract level of reasoning. This information needs to be taken into account when planning the future of civilization, as it indicates that most people ''are not capable of the level of reasoning necessary to make sound decisions on major issues'' without depending on the opinions of others.
 
* [http://www.brainstages.net/4thr.html The Fourth 'R', or Why Johnny Can't Reason] by Dr. Herman T. Epstein: amazingly, studies show that over half of adult humans are "stuck" at a non-abstract level of reasoning. This information needs to be taken into account when planning the future of civilization, as it indicates that most people ''are not capable of the level of reasoning necessary to make sound decisions on major issues'' without depending on the opinions of others.
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* Many moralistic arguments rest on the premise that non-human animals do or do not do certain things; it is important to establish which of these premises are true, even if many of the arguments are no better than [[appeal to nature]] or its opposite (which might be called the [[animalistic fallacy]] ''(is there a better name for this?)'') which argues that a particular practice is something only animals do and is therefore uncivilized and [[bad]]
 
* Many moralistic arguments rest on the premise that non-human animals do or do not do certain things; it is important to establish which of these premises are true, even if many of the arguments are no better than [[appeal to nature]] or its opposite (which might be called the [[animalistic fallacy]] ''(is there a better name for this?)'') which argues that a particular practice is something only animals do and is therefore uncivilized and [[bad]]
 
* '''2007-04-19''' [http://news.com.com/Freakonomics+writer+talks+monkey+business/2100-1026-6177655.html?part=dht&tag=nl.e433 'Freakonomics' writer talks monkey business]: capuchin monkeys are given a monetary system and independently discover sexual prostitution
 
* '''2007-04-19''' [http://news.com.com/Freakonomics+writer+talks+monkey+business/2100-1026-6177655.html?part=dht&tag=nl.e433 'Freakonomics' writer talks monkey business]: capuchin monkeys are given a monetary system and independently discover sexual prostitution
 +
==Sources==
 +
===1===
 +
'''1998-03-01''' [http://www.apa.org/journals/features/psp806845.pdf The Heritability of Attitudes: A Study of Twins]
 +
* '''2006-11-22''' [http://www.overcomingbias.com/2006/11/beware_heritabl.html Beware Heritable Beliefs] has a summary and some quick analysis, with comments
 +
* The study apparently did not look at the role played by variations in the prenatal environment, which is known to have dramatic effects on sexuality; however, the differentials between the "identical" and "fraternal" twins should take care of this factor also. I think.
 +
* Has anyone worked out what the columns mean in Table 1 (page 5)?

Revision as of 23:12, 29 April 2007

Overview

Human beings, although generally lacking in strong instinctive behavior, do have certain innate tendencies that are not driven by pure reason.

Genetics

Genetics appear to have a heavy influence on these traits:

  • Life: voluntary euthanasia, abortion on demand, birth control, and organized religion.
  • Equality: open-door immigration, distinct gender roles, racial discrimination, and getting along with others

Genetics appear to have little or no influence on these traits:

  • Intellect: books, chess, education, and capitalism
  • Punishment: death penalty for murder, and castration for sex crimes

There is some evidence that highly heritable attitudes are psychologically "stronger" than less-heritable ones.

Sources: #1 (more traits were studied than are listed above; the above list is derived from the summary at Overcoming Bias)

Related Pages

Related Concepts

  • Love bombing is a deliberate, focused show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual, with the effect that the target individual feels almost overwhelmingly welcomed by the group and is likely to actively seek additional contact. Critics have alleged that this technique is abused by cult religions such as the Church of Scientology.

Links

  • The Fourth 'R', or Why Johnny Can't Reason by Dr. Herman T. Epstein: amazingly, studies show that over half of adult humans are "stuck" at a non-abstract level of reasoning. This information needs to be taken into account when planning the future of civilization, as it indicates that most people are not capable of the level of reasoning necessary to make sound decisions on major issues without depending on the opinions of others.
  • 2007-04-16 Humans hot, sweaty, natural-born runners: humanity's evolutionary heritage
  • 2007-03-22 [reg req]Brain Injury Said to Affect Moral Choices: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex appears to be responsible for the human reluctance to hurt one person in order to save the lives of others, as well as human compassion in general
  • 2007-01-22 Why Do Good? Brain Study Offers Clues: People may not perform selfless acts just for an emotional reward, a new brain study suggests. Instead, they may do good because they're acutely tuned into the needs and actions of others. New research at Duke University shows that a piece of the brain linked to perceiving others' intentions shows more activity in people who display unselfish behavior, and less in those who act more selfishly.

Arguments

It has been suggested that studies such as the Stanford prison experiment [W] and The Third Wave [W] (not to mention the events in Nazi Germany which were the inspiration for the latter) strongly argue in favor of the evilness of human nature. Note for later: also the Milgram experiment [W], which is put nicely in context in one of the chapters of The Authoritarians

Notes

We can learn a lot about human nature by studying animal behavior:

  • Which practices are things we are "taught by society" and which emerge naturally?
  • What are the similarities and differences between humans and our nearest genetic relatives (primates)? Much discussion of morality rests upon assumptions about which attributes are key to being human and which are not.
  • Many moralistic arguments rest on the premise that non-human animals do or do not do certain things; it is important to establish which of these premises are true, even if many of the arguments are no better than appeal to nature or its opposite (which might be called the animalistic fallacy (is there a better name for this?)) which argues that a particular practice is something only animals do and is therefore uncivilized and bad
  • 2007-04-19 'Freakonomics' writer talks monkey business: capuchin monkeys are given a monetary system and independently discover sexual prostitution

Sources

1

1998-03-01 The Heritability of Attitudes: A Study of Twins

  • 2006-11-22 Beware Heritable Beliefs has a summary and some quick analysis, with comments
  • The study apparently did not look at the role played by variations in the prenatal environment, which is known to have dramatic effects on sexuality; however, the differentials between the "identical" and "fraternal" twins should take care of this factor also. I think.
  • Has anyone worked out what the columns mean in Table 1 (page 5)?